CASES.LU

Glossary

  1. ▹ Antivirus
  2. ▹ Assets
  3. ▹ Authentication
  4. ▹ Availability
  5. ▹ Basic criteria for risk analysis
  6. ▹ Computer Hacks
  7. ▹ Confidentiality
  8. ▹ Control
  9. ▹ Cryptography
  10. ▹ Cybercrime
  11. ▹ Cybercriminals
  12. ▹ DRP – Disaster Recovery Plan
  13. ▹ Data backups
  14. ▹ Data loss
  15. ▹ Defacement
  16. ▹ Disinfect machine with a live CD
  17. ▹ Disposal
  18. ▹ Email
  19. ▹ Firewall
  20. ▹ Human error
  21. ▹ IDS/IPS
  22. ▹ Image rights
  23. ▹ Impact
  24. ▹ Integrity
  25. ▹ Internet and copyright
  26. ▹ Legal Aspects
  27. ▹ LuxTrust
  28. ▹ Malicious Codes
  29. ▹ Malicious websites
  30. ▹ Network segmentation
  31. ▹ Password
  32. ▹ Patches
  33. ▹ Phishing
  34. ▹ Physical faults
  35. ▹ Securing a fixed workstation
  36. ▹ Physical theft
  37. ▹ Recommendations for securing a file server
  38. ▹ Recommendations to secure a server connected to Internet
  39. ▹ Recommendations to secure a Web server
  40. ▹ Removable devices
  41. ▹ Risk processing
  42. ▹ Spam – unwanted emails
  43. ▹ SSL/TLS – encryption technologies on the web
  44. ▹ Update softwares with Secunia PSI
  45. ▹ Security Charter
  46. ▹ Social engineering
  47. ▹ Threat
  48. ▹ Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
  49. ▹ Vulnerabilities
  50. ▹ Web of Trust - WOT
  51. ▹ Web filter – Proxy
  52. ▹ Why is it important to protect your computer?

Cybercrime

In brief

Cybercrime is commonly defined as any unlawful action against the integrity of a specific computer site or perpetrated using a computing device. This definition is based on the use of computing resources. Indeed, the definition applies whether the computer is used by the criminal to perpetrate an offense or a conventional crime (scam, threat, etc.) or the computer is the target of the criminal (theft, fraudulent use or destruction of data, etc.).

Conventional attacks

This type of attack uses technologies associated with information and communication networks as a medium. Generally, the goal is to take advantage of the credulity of users to acquire confidential information from them and then use it unlawfully.

There are all sorts of conventional offenses and their number is constantly increasing. The classic examples are:

  • extortion;
  • credit card fraud;
  • various punishable “revenge” type threats;
  • commercial fraud;
  • breach of trust and miscellaneous scams;
  • corruption of minors;
  • identity theft.

These are “traditional” crimes and offenses transposed to digital information and communication networks.

These attacks are essentially motivated by greed (the search for any type of gain, financial or material) or immoral, unhealthy and improper behaviours (such as pedophilia, prostitution rings, racism, revisionism. etc.).

Technological attacks

This type of attack has changed significantly since its advent; it essentially exploits the many vulnerabilities of computer resources. The most common attacks are:

  • the installation of spy programs,
  • the installation of pirate programs,
  • intrusions,
  • miscellaneous damage,
  • destruction of sites,
  • information theft,
  • denials of service on websites,
  • rebound from victim computer sites, etc.

A technological attack can be based on one or a combination of several of the following reasons:

  • strategic (theft of classified sensitive information),
  • ideological (conversion of predominant thoughts or current of ideas into unlawful actions),
  • terrorism (destabilising an established order),
  • greed (financial or material gain),
  • entertainment (for fun or sport),
  • vengeance (reaction to any kind of frustration).

They either target confidentiality, integrity or the availability of a computer system (or a combination of all three).

To deploy malware, the hacker typically focuses on one of the following alternatives:

Opportunistic attack

Opportunistic attacks are attacks not directly targeting particular people or organisations, but where the goal is to cause as many casualties as possible, whatever they may be. Most people and organisations are vulnerable to this threat.

Here are some common steps for this type of attack:

The creation or purchase of malicious software

Malware is a tool that gives the attacker absolute control over the computers of his/her victims. It is, therefore, the cornerstone of many opportunistic attacks.

Sending or renting a SPAM service

Reaching a large number of victims requires good distribution. Whether for a scam or in order to infect computers a wide audience must be reached. Sending emails or SPAM on social networks can be a very good method.

Creating malicious sites and infecting existing sites

A web presence is important not only for legitimate organisations, but also for cybercriminals. Creation of phishing sites, advertisements, scams, pages containing an exploit that will infect the computers of Internet users …

Targeted attack

Targeted attacks can be very difficult to counteract. It all depends on the energy and time deployed by the criminal group. In general, a well-organised, targeted attack is likely to succeed when the attacker focuses exclusively on the victim.

These attacks can take place in different stages. Below you will find some important steps involved in this type of attack.

Information harvesting

Before attacking a particular target, the hacker generally assesses any information that might help him/her map the targeted organisation or individual (snapshot). A list of telephone numbers or emails posted on the Internet can be the key to attacking an organisation.

Network scanning

Sometimes hackers test the target systems to see if they are active and determine if there are any vulnerabilities. This can trigger alarms and often does not give convincing results; it is therefore reserved for certain specific fields of application only.

Social engineering

Often, attacking computer systems is impossible because they are highly protected. In the case of social engineering, rather than using a technical flaw of the system, the perpetrator will exploit the credulity of a human being. The perpetrator will, for example, pretend to be someone else related to the user in order to gain access to information such as a password. This scenario has become common practice; hackers often use psychological pressure on an individual or invoke urgency, to quickly obtain the desired information.

Mailtrap

Often the perpetrator will attempt an attack by mailtrap, for example containing a “Trojan horse” in any program, which may allow the perpetrator, once activated by the user, to take remote control of the victim’s computer.

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